The report notes that a large portion of the population of the United States live in areas vulnerable to earthquake hazards. Using data collected in 2013 and 2014 as well as systematically analyzing the last four cycles of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Models (published in 1996, 2002, 2008 and 2014), the report warns that the USA East Coast could be hit extra hard because of its dense populations and lack of earthquake prepared buildings and structures.
Also upgraded risk warnings mentioned in the report include higher probabilities of catastrophic tsunamis that might hit coastlines of Alaska and the Pacific Northwest and a repeat of historic U.S. earthquakes, such as the 1906 San Francisco earthquake or the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. The report estimates that these could cause up to US$500 billion in damage. It also warns that there is a significant number of critical infrastructure facilities located in high earthquake-hazard areas.
According to FEMA, the main factors that determine earthquake risk include:
- the level of seismic hazard in a geographical area;
- the number of people in the geographical area;
- the amount of property exposed to seismic hazards; and
- how vulnerable these people and property are to the hazards (mitigated vs. unmitigated risk vulnerability).
Estimates of earthquake casualties’ correspond to the number of people present in stricken areas. Likewise, earthquake damages correspond to the quantity and value of the buildings, infrastructure and other property in those areas. According to FEMA, seismic risk increases as earthquake-prone regions become more densely populated and urbanized.
Vulnerability of property is mitigated by the prevalence or lack of earthquake-resistant construction and best practices compliance.
Buildings, infrastructure, and utilities that comply with the latest seismic building codes and standards should be more resistant to earthquake damage. Structures that do not comply are likely to sustain more damage.
According to FEMA, levels of earthquake preparedness and disaster resilience determine how vulnerable people are to seismic hazards. Businesses, schools, health care facilities, organizations, individuals and communities that have invested in assessing their risks and in formulating and implementing responsible preparedness and mitigation measures are likely to experience fewer casualties, less damage and less disruption from earthquakes. Earthquake-resistant construction is a preeminent example of such measures.
Brian Clark Howard, writing in the National Geographic (Earthquake Maps Reveal Higher Risks for Much of U.S.: New government maps extend hazard zones in eastern, central, and western U.S.) about the 2013 and 2014 updated USGS data notes that the regions most at risk are still the West Coast, the Intermountain West, and several known active regions in the central and eastern U.S., including near New Madrid, Missouri, and Charleston, South Carolina.
Howard writes that based on the new seismic data as well as improved computational modeling done at the University of California, Berkeley and elsewhere that the 16 states at highest risk of quakes are Alaska, Arkansas, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. In addition, the data suggests that there is an higher earthquake risk around the New Madrid Seismic Zone in southwestern Missouri; the zone stretches into Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Arkansas. There is also higher risk than previously assumed across much of the West Coast, thanks to new data from California and the Northwest's Cascadia Subduction Zone.
It may well be that for many of us, these new findings put us at risk or greater risk than we may have previously assumed based on our location and preparedness plans. This new report is a good “prompt” to revisit earthquake readiness for our businesses, homes, schools and not-for-profit organizations. You can learn more about earthquake readiness on the FEMA website. This may be a great wake-up call reminder for us to consider seriously our own revised exposure to earthquake risks.
There are specific steps that businesses can take to reduce the chances that earthquakes will injure employees, customers, or other workplace visitors, damage workplaces, or jeopardize the survival of the business operations. Such steps include: assess your seismic risks and how to develop and implement a plan to cost-effectively mitigate those risks; educate your people with earthquake-related information resources, ranging from reports, handbooks, guides, and manuals to posters, software, web-based tools, and instructional materials; and implement training and readiness preparation focused on earthquake risk reduction, and managing an earthquake disaster. These efforts can supplement or be integrated with other training and preparation efforts to addresses mitigation, preparedness, and response subjects that are applicable to earthquakes and as well as other hazards.